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  4. Tools & Techniques

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- [Voiceover] So let's take a look at just a rundown of tools and techniques. If we're looking at sweet spots in Shale Plays, we know that Pyrolysis and TOC - Tmax, they help predict the value for sweet spots, and they can also help you delineate formation tops, and if you do have the luxury of having the ability to get Pyrolysis, if you have data on your cores, you can gain a lot of understanding about the nature of reservoir and the rocks. Also, there's a potential to calculate a TOC and sweet spots. Different methods, here's the Passey method. There are also other methods. Do they work? Well, some people make a case that they do not really work all that well, but most people think they do, so here's the Passey Log method. I just have it illustrated, and I've also given you links to the actual calculations and algorithms. Now, here's another thing you might want to incorporate. In your wells, how are the wells that you're sending related to historical, thermal heat flows, and how do they tie in to maturation and organic porosity development? So it's super, super interesting to find heat flow maps along with the position of the basement uplifts and tectonic activity. Bring it together and say "okay, "what does this tell me about the wells "in potential areas of preferential enrichment?" Okay, so let's take a look again at thermal heat flows, and again, if we understand the history of the basin and how the, basically how the plates moved, what collided, the pressures, temperatures, and potential structural deformations, etc., we could essentially predict the heat flows and we can also tend to predict the development of organic porosity if the heat was enough or the pressures were enough to occur and create thermal maturation. So there were quite a few interesting articles, and I put some links at the bottom of the slide. And then again, talking about migration pathways, here we look at Oklahoma, or at least through the part of Kansas that the so-called cooker is where the, essentially, the thermal maturation and thermal flows were sufficiently high. So what I really find fascinating about Oklahoma and southeast Kansas and northeast Oklahoma and southwest Missouri is that we have Mississippi-type mineralization which was all about incredibly rich fluids, mineral rich fluids, coming up and being kind of cooked during geological time in certain episodes. Then at the same time, we have in just west is the a-lock-a-gin the creation of the Anadarko basin and all kinds of deposition and issues with organic content, so you have the two things coming together. You have the heat flow with this massive, massive basin and organic content. I like to think of it as King-Kong meets Godzilla. King-Kong bearing all of the muscle with all of the organic content, and Godzilla breathing fire. What do you have? You have amazing, amazing mineralization. You have also amazing amounts of generation of hydro-carbons. They also have amazing amounts of biogenesis which is good or bad. You could have creation of porosity through fenitization and some cases even dissolution. And then also you might have chart-if-i-ca-tion and deposition of sparry calcite, well, precipitation and formation of sparry calcite that fills up your pore spaces, so that is really important to keep in mind, too, as you identify sweet spots. Faulting and Gas Migration Pathways. This more applies to the Gulf Coast. Quite interesting. Also have other factors. So we need to understand major fault systems, normal faults, gas migration. Again, active and ancient plate boundaries, why? Well, because of tectonism, pressures, temperatures. Also understanding the geomechanics, poor pressure, brittleness, TOC ductility, ways of getting at those measurements, what can we do, what can we measure.